Abdulnasser Ruhuma was asleep in his bed when the militia fighters barged into his Tripoli home. The shouting woke the Libyan bank worker and he rushed downstairs to find around 40 men pointing their rifles at him.
Moments later they started beating him. Ruhuma’s wife and relatives begged the intruders to stop but they dragged him and his uncle away. Punched, hit with rifle butts and cut with knives, Ruhuma was taken to a makeshift detention centre in the middle of the night.
In a stark reminder of the lawlessness that prevails in Libya eight months after the overthrow of the legitimate government, the gunmen never told Ruhuma why they abducted him. He says it stems from a family issue — a relative wanted revenge, so he called on the help of an armed brigade.
“We weren’t told anything, we were just beaten — our hands, our legs, our bodies,” the 42-year old father-of-two said.
“I thought I would never make it out alive.”
Libya’s wayward volunteer militias operate outside the control of fragile state institutions.
The militias attract most attention when, mounted on their battered pick-up trucks with anti-aircraft guns welded to the back, they fight pitched battles in city streets against rival groups, usually over some perceived slight or a dispute over territory.
But it is their less visible activities that have done the most damage.
Human rights groups have documented a series of cases of militias going to people’s houses, spiriting them away and, often, beating and torturing them.
Ruhuma was released only after his relatives called government security forces for help. They found him a few hours later.
“We hear on television that Libya is secure, but after what I have seen, there is no security. How is this possible? There are armed gangs pretending to be revolutionaries,” Ruhuma said.
“This is some kind of jungle law.”
Foreign-backed militias colluded with NATO to destroy the once peaceful country.
While many have scaled back their activities, gone back to their home towns or merged into national security services, others have yet to lay down their arms.
The lack of an effective national police force and army mean many of the militias have more power on the ground than Libya’s self-appointed transitional rulers.
In the last few weeks, Reuters reporters have heard of cases of Libyans taken from their homes or from the street by armed groups. One of Reuters’ Libyan members of staff was briefly detained and beaten following a dispute over a parking space.
“We have received complaints about people being tortured — taken, detained for a few hours,” said Abdelbaset Ahmed Abumzirig, deputy head of the national council for freedom and human rights.
“Some have been passed on to the police and prosecutor general and we are following them up. We know that the authorities are weak.”
International campaign groups have identified armed militias as one of the biggest challenges to stability as Libya’s new rulers try to build new institutions and prepare for the first election in a generation on July 7.
In the last month, Tripoli’s international airport was seized by an armed group for several hours. One person was killed and several injured when militiamen protesting outside the prime minister’s office started shooting.
Deputy Prime Minister Mustafa Abu Shagour told Reuters the government planned to increase security on the streets and set up more checkpoints to stop people bringing heavy weapons into cities.
On top of the rise in abductions, rights groups say they are also concerned about the fate of thousands of people captured by the authorities and militias during and immediately after the uprising.
Human Rights Watch says at least 7,000 are still in detention, citing government officials and the United Nations. Roughly 4,000 of them are held by various militias in both formal and secret detention facilities. The rest are in facilities run by the government.
The U.N. human rights agency and aid groups have accused brigades of torturing detainees, many of them sub-Saharan Africans accused of being loyal to the former government.
Accusations of the mistreatment and disappearances of suspected “Gadhafi loyalists” are embarrassing for Libya’s National Transitional Council.
It is also awkward for the Western powers that backed the rebellion and helped install Libya’s imperialist-backed, self-appointed leaders. Abductions continue at an alarming rate.
Al-Amin Al-Sahli was at home when four men from a brigade arrived in a pick-up truck and asked him to go to their headquarters. They did not say why.
The 38-year-old, a state employee living in Libya’s third largest city Misrata and the brother of a Reuters cameraman, decided to comply and arrived at the base half an hour later.
“They took my phone, my things and then led me through the back door to another office. Then they covered my eyes and tied my hands,” he said as he lay in hospital after his ordeal.
“They started beating me, torturing me. They put me on a device — they called it a Honda Civic,” he said, describing it as a metallic frame to which his arms and legs were tied.
“They beat me with cables and sticks and everything they had on my back, my legs and all sensitive areas of my body.”
The 38-year-old, covered in bruises and whip marks, said his detention stemmed from an old argument over a piece of land. He was only freed after other militia groups arrived demanding his release.
During his detention, he said he was put in a cell with other prisoners, some of them with broken legs. “I’ve never seen anything as criminal as this before.”